August 24, 2013

Alternative Resources in Media Survey Successfully Finished

By CRRC-Armenia Junior Fellow Ani Karapetyan

In July, 2013, the end line survey within the Alternative Resources in Media (ARM) project reached its final stage. The baseline survey of the project was conducted in 2011, uncovering media preferences and concerns of the Armenian public. Detailed information on the 2011 survey is also available in the CRRC–Armenia blog post.

In 2013, the end line survey of the aforementioned project was also conducted; the results of which revealed much interesting information. Some ARM 2013 survey related materials have already been made available in CRRC–Armenia website. Meanwhile, you can familiarize yourself with several of the survey findings presented below.

As one of the aims of the ARM Project was to support alternative media content, it is interesting to look into the traditional and alternative media use by the respondents of the surveys.
Traditional media users’ numbers did not change considerably since 2011. The number of people watching only TV increased by 6% and a 7% decrease occurred in the number of those who both watch TV and listen to the radio. The picture with the Internet use is different: by the 2013 survey, the share of the Internet users increased by 20%. However, whilst changes in Internet use habits for those aged 16 – 25 and 26 to 60 are not significant, people aged 26 – 30 started to use the Internet much more in 2013 compared to 2011. In 2011, 41% of respondents aged 26 to 30 used the Internet in the last 12 months. By 2013, this percentage had increased to 81%. Further, while the Internet use increase in Yerevan (64 % in 2013 vs. 44% in 2011) was predictable, the increase of the level of Internet use in rural areas (by 24 percentage points) was surprising. It should be also noted that the level of the Internet use in rural areas remains low (61% of the respondents did not use the Internet in the last 12 months according to the 2013 survey results) (see the Figure below). 

In contrast to the 2011 survey, in 2013 respondents were asked about media owners. The results revealed that media ownership is still unknown to general public: only 22 respondents (1.5% of all) were able to specify the names of the media owners, and only 4% of the respondents (60 people) agreed that media owners influence the media activity.  
Analysis of Internet privacy concerns revealed a decreasing trend: 27% of the respondents interviewed in 2013 were not at all concerned with the Internet privacy issues compared to 19% in 2011. Thus, the Internet is perhaps considered as a trusted source of alternative knowledge and information circulation.
This brief outline of the 2011 and 2013 surveys is not wholly representative of what analyzing power the survey has. It is a great source and tool for deeper analyses, and all interested researchers, media representatives and policy makers are invited to make use of the project database published.   

CRRC-Armenia Senior Fellow's Presentation

By CRRC-Armenia Junior Fellow Anna Drnoyan

On July 31, 2013, Caucasus Research Resource Centers (CRRC) – Armenia invited CRRC Senior Fellow Tatevik Zohrabyan to present her research on factors impacting Female Labor Force Participation (FLFP), including findings related to the factors which influence female attitudes toward having a job in case of job scarcity in the South Caucasus. The study was implemented within the framework of CRRC-Armenia Fellowship Program and is based on an analysis of the Caucasus Barometer household survey data for 2010, conducted by the CRRC regional offices.

Dr. Tatevik Zohrabyan is a graduate of Texas A&M University and holds a PhD in Agricultural Economics. Tatevik worked on cross–border mergers and acquisitions, company evaluations, statistical and financial modeling, thus possessing extensive experience in finance, consulting, research, and teaching. Currently she is Head of Corporate Finance and Business Advisory department at Baker Tilly Armenia.
During the seminar, the importance of the female labor force participation was elaborated upon and results from cross–tabulations revealing the current female employment patterns in the South Caucasus were discussed. On the basis of these results, Dr. Zohrabyan then presented recommendations directed toward the improvement of female labor force participation in the South Caucasus.

The objective of the first study was to empirically investigate factors impacting the FLFP in the South Caucasus using a binary logit model. The second study attempted to reveal socio-economic factors impacting the female attitude toward having a job in case of job scarcity in the South Caucasus through an ordered logit model analysis.
In a nutshell, the study revealed that residing in the capital was inversely related both with the FLFP in Armenia and with having more negative attitudes toward a statement that “Men have more right to a job in case of job scarcity” in Azerbaijan and Georgia. Furthermore, a negative relationship was found between age and the FLFP in Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia.
It was found that in Georgia, increased age decreased the odds of having negative attitudes toward the aforementioned statement. H
aving at least higher education positively affected the FLFP in Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia, simultaneously generating more negative attitude toward the statement.

Finally, based on the estimation results, Dr. Zohrabyan presented recommendations to attain maximum female labor force participation, such as:
· employing strategies aimed at encouraging the female labour force participation in capital cities;
·  creating jobs with flexible working hours to fit the schedule of married women;
·  implementing policy enhancing women’s self-esteem and social status that will help to break the cultural stereotype that men are more entitled to jobs when jobs are scarce;
·   investing in child care facilities and making them affordable to women. 

Among the attendees were representatives of civil society organizations and research institutions. This informative and important presentation was then followed up by a lively discussion and question and answer session.